"Polynesian Bodies" – Why Polynesian Bodies Build Muscle Better

Polynesian people are descendants of those early mariners that crossed the great waters and became the original inhabitants of the South Pacific Islands. In order to survive those long cold oceanic journeys, their Polynesian bodies evolved to develop maximum muscle building capabilities as a means of generating and preserving body temperature.

This was a direct adaptation to an environmental factor. Those that could not adapt died, whereas the survivors carried with them genetic advantages, creating a hybrid body of sorts, capable of performing enormous feats of physical labor, on very little calories, and very little water.

Colonization of the Pacific Islands only encouraged the Polynesian body to propagate these gene characteristics, as the early Islanders literally hacked their homes out of the forests with their bare hands. Domesticating wildlife and horticulture, was a herculean feat, and the scarcity of fresh water developed a need for the Polynesian body to store fluids efficiently.

These early evolutionary patterns form the basis of the contemporary Polynesian body. It enables Polynesian bodies to:

1. Build muscle easily

2. Possess unique strength to mass capabilities

3. Withstand harsh environmental conditions more easily

4. Endure long periods with little food and little water

Unfortunately these adaptations also mean Polynesian bodies will

1. Store excess energy more easily in the form of body fat

2. Store excess water subcutaneously

3. Burn calories at a slower more gradual pace

In the absence of the extreme physical labors performed by our Polynesian ancestors, and the readily abundant food in western cultures, it is no surprise that Polynesian bodies have a tendency to gain unsightly body fat. This storage of excess energy was a survival adaptation for the days of leanness prevalent in the island cultures, but completely absent in western cultures.

Here are 3 of the best tips to improve a Polynesian Body

1. Exercise, choosing intense weight training over cardio.

Polynesian bodies are designed to work out with maximum intensity. Once or twice a week is sufficient. If you are weight training 5 – 6 days a week, I guarantee that you can train twice as hard once or twice a week. Another way of looking at it is this: If you can weight train for 90 min’s, I assure you, you can train harder for 40 min’s. Remember that you can train hard or you can train long, but you can’t do both. Always choose to train hard. Intense training triggers the release of muscle building hormones into the blood stream. Jane Fonda workouts do not. Polynesian bodies respond well to incredibly intense training regimes performed less often.

2. Don’t eat everyday.

This one may come as a shock to you, especially if you are Polynesian, but it is true. You may have heard that if you don’t eat every few hours then your body goes into starvation mode, yada, yada, yada. Who came up with this idea, did they get the rest of the day off for such brilliance? It is simply not true. Polynesian bodies have descended from a genetic strain of humans that could survive for weeks without food and rest and very little water.

Early man tracked herds over vast expanses, on foot, and when they finally engaged their prey they could somehow muster the strength and energy, in this depleted state, to run down and kill a beast more than ten times their size. I know one thing’s for sure. Put a bunch of these early hominids in the NFL and they would stomp the snot out of those juice heads. We need to tap into that power, and utilize the body’s stored energy.

The idea that you feel tired all the time, and that you need to eat constantly to maintain your energy levels are fabrications of the weak modern mind that prevent us from exploiting the vastness of our true human potential.

3. Eat real, natural, unprocessed foods indigenous to the islands, and eat just enough to be satisfied.

A Polynesian body can store more water, so drink plenty to discourage water retention.

Organic fruits, vegetables, seafood, coconut oil, taro, along with chicken, pork and beef are the mainstay of the Polynesian diet. These are the foods which Polynesian bodies have adapted to assimilate efficiently through hundreds of years of evolution. Polynesians should not consume processed foods. Canned foods and commercially packaged foods combined with the naturally high fat Polynesian diets create metabolic mayhem in the Polynesian body. Eliminate all processed and man made foods gradually.

Through the evolutionary process of natural selection, Polynesian bodies can become the ultimate muscle building powerhouse, or an unsightly storage system for excess energy and water weight. Polynesian bodies can build muscle more efficiently because they possess slightly lower metabolisms, and have a genetic propensity to store more water. Over 70% of muscle is water. This is a wonderful adaptation for gaining muscle mass, but slightly detrimental when the desire is to burn body fat, and flush subcutaneous water. Polynesian bodies also possess a unique hormonal environment that allows muscle gain to take place more effectively. A gift to the contemporary Polynesian body from their ancestors who survived some of the most brutal oceanic endeavors.

To approach genetic potential a Polynesian bodybuilder should train with extreme intensity, less often, control caloric intake and manage their water correctly.

Non-Formal Education in the Philippines

Non-formal Education is one of the means to spread literacy and employable skills to the people and it covers a much larger audience than the formal system. The NFE in Philippines is designed to assist the out-of-school youth and adults who have been deprived of formal education. There may be varying reasons for this.It may include the economic, social and geographical limitations which have hindered the path of literacy and employable skills.

The mission of the NFE program in Philippines is to empower the people with “desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that will enable him/her to think critically and creatively, act innovatively and humanely in improving the quality of his/her life and that of his/her family, community and country.”

The main objective of NFE in Philippines is to reduce the number of illiterates in the country and provide them with need-based literacy programmes and also develop basic employable skills.Activities like vocational training, adult reading classes, family planning sessions as well as leadership workshops for community leaders.

This branch of education is looked after by the Bureau of Non-Formal Education which has its history dating back to 1829 when civic educational lectures were introduced in the country.Non-formal education was formally started in 1973 and is now an integral part of the developmental activities.There is a 3-pronged approach in this method which focuses on literacy, continuing education and staff development.

The main thrust of NFE is on the acquisition of skills needed for earning livelihood and to survive the competitiveness in the labor market.The horizons of non-formal education are far wider as compared to the formal system.

NFE reaches out to a greater audience irrespective of demographic characteristics, socio-economic conditions and varied general interests. In a few words, this system reaches out to all those people who might otherwise never get a chance to have any sort of education.

The Non-formal Education Program of Philippines lays thrust on the following aspects:

• Literacy Programs for numeracy and functional literacy of each individual

• Development of Livelihood Skills

• Expansion of Certification and Equivalency Programmes

One of the main aims of NFE is to bring about a decrease in the poverty levels among the communities.To attain this goal, the bureau provides leadership and technical assistance in the implementation of literacy programmes, projects, trainings, workshops etc.This process includes the following features:

Female Functional Literacy & Parent Education: This program majorly involves the mother and provides them with essential skills and competencies to perform better in the fields related to child survival, protection and development.

Literacy Project for Cultural Communities: The target group for this program is that section of the society which is unable to attend the formal education system.This may include the cultural communities in general and also the hill tribes in particular.

Development of Literacy Measures: The Bureau of Non-formal Education in Philippines has developed some literacy parameters through a series of seminars and workshops.At the moment there are seven literacy measures which decide the functional literacy of the target group.This is also accompanied by a Manual of Instructions for using the Measures and its scoring.

Development of Resource Material: It also focuses on the development of the curricula for various levels of literacy and also the resource material needed for the same.This includes booklets, posters and the facilitator’s guide.

Actual Implementation on the Field: This is the most important component of the whole project.Efforts are made to implement the literacy and livelihood development programmes in the actual field with the target group in order to eradicate illiteracy and thereby alleviating poverty.

Thus, the Bureau of Non-formal Education in Philippines works on four major action points – family life skills which also includes health, nutrition, childcare, household management, family planning; vocational skills, functional skills and enhancing livelihood skills.

Childhood Obesity – Emotional Effects and Sedentary Lifestyles

The social and psychological issues of childhood obesity are perhaps even more intrusive on the child’s life than the physical. Childhood is a critical time for the development of self-esteem, thus the psychological issues faced by an overweight child places even more urgency on the prevention of the problem.

Obesity is “one of the most stigmatizing and least socially acceptable conditions in childhood.” (Schwimmer, Jeffrey B., MD ET AL,: Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents,” The Journal of American Medicine, 2003, p. 1818). An historic study showed that normal weight children rank obese children as the least desirable friends. Obese individuals were described as lazy, dirty, dumb and deceitful. These descriptions were made by children as young as six years old (Must, Aviva, Ph.D., “Effects of obesity on morbidity in children and adolescents,” Nutrition in Clinical Care, p. 9).

One study relates that the quality of life of an obese child can be directly compared to the quality of life of a child undergoing cancer treatment. They feel excluded from a variety of activities and have lower levels of self worth and self esteem. They are teased and withdraw from their peers. The physical limitations and inability to keep up with normal activities may lead to a vicious cycle of additional weight gain. Studies have also shown that obese children miss four times more school than healthy weight children, which could lead to decreased school performance (Schwimmer, p. 1814).

Depression and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) have also been linked to childhood obesity (Mustillo, Sarah, Ph.D., “Obesity and psychiatric disorder: developmental trajectories,” Pediatrics, 2003, p. 854). ODD is manifested by a pattern of uncooperative and defiant behavior toward authority that can interfere with day-to-day functioning (www.aacap.org)

The effects of obesity effects have a lasting impact on an individual’s life in childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood. Obese adolescents have lower education attainment, earn less money and have higher rates of poverty. Discrimination because of obesity has been documented toward adolescents in apartment rentals, employment opportunities and college admissions (Must, p. 9). Finding success as an adult is an enormous challenge, but especially daunting when faced with the physical, emotional and discriminatory effects brought on by obesity http://www.healthlink.mcw.edu

Americans in general are much too sedentary. Children should have at least thirty minutes per day of exercise outside of school time (Hu,Frank B., M.D., Ph.D., “Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women,” The Journal of American Medicine, 2003, p. 1790). Television, computers, and video games consume more and more of outside playtime. Television watching is the predominant sedentary behavior in children, second only to sleeping (Kaur, Haroshena, M.D., MPH, “Duration of television watching is associated with body mass index,” The Journal of Pediatrics, 2003, p. 506).

Watching television is more strongly associated with obesity than other sedentary behaviors. This is because (1) watching television reduces energy expenditure by limiting time that children spend doing physical activities, (2) watching television leads to increased energy intake because it tends to lead to snacking – especially with the inundation of junk food enticements, and (3) watching television has even less energy expenditure associated with it than other sedentary behaviors such as reading and writing. (Hu, p. 1790).

Increased time spent in front of the television can result in a net gain of 350 calories per day (combined loss of potential physical activity with snacking) that over a week would result in a 0.7 pound gain in body weight per week. (Epstein, Leonard H., Ph.D., “Effects of manipulating sedentary behavior on physical activity and food intake,” The Journal of Pediatrics, 2002, 140, p. 334). These findings suggest that even in healthy, non-obese children, sedentary behavior can drastically increase caloric consumption while decreasing energy expenditure.

Kinesiology for Allergy Testing

Allergy testing

Allergies or insensitivities to foods and substances may cause impaired health, weight gain or symptoms which doctors find difficult to resolve. The starting point is to detect, what are the problem foods or substances for you? There are different methods which can be used, including blood tests. However, one method, kinesiology is less invasive and highly effective, and allows many different foods or substances to be tested.

What is kinesiology?

Kinesiology applies a light pressure to the muscle being tested, while a test vial is held against your body. When your muscle goes weak it indicates a sensitivity to the food, or the presence of a pathogen. Patients find it fascinating to feel the difference to their muscle strength as different allergens are held against their body. The results are tangible! Furthermore, results generally concur with other more conventional tests, e.g. blood tests.

Kinesiology was developed in 1964 by George Goodheart, a chiropractor, and has gained widespread use amongst chiropractors, naturopaths and a few medical doctors.

Allergy testing using Kinesiology

Allergy testing using kinesiology (muscle testing) can determine food and substance intolerances, nutritional deficiencies and the presence pathogens. This method gives very specific results, unique to you. This helps to reveal the source of your symptoms.

Allergy testing uses homeopathic quantities of foods, substances or pathogens in sealed glass tubes, these test vials are harmless.

What can be tested?

  • All common foods including wheat, yeast, dairy, fruits, meat and vegetables.
  • Deficiencies in any proteins, vitamins, amino acids or essential fatty acids.
  • The presence of pathogens: viruses, bacteria, parasites including candida.
  • The presence of chemicals, toxic metals and radiation (eg. from mobile phones).

Allergy testing for children

This treatment can be used to test food allergies in children


Initially, it will be suggested that the allergens (foods and substances detected) are removed from the diet. Although, through an understanding of the allergens, and potentially the pathogens, there may be a route to health, which might ultimately allow a normal diet and routine to be resumed.

Allergies can develop due to stress or due to “poor living”. However, if a healthy lifestyle is adopted, and a method or habits adopted to reduce stress, symptoms will start to resolve. Kinesiology is a route to determine what is going on in the body, what is stressing it, and what might be the path to health.

Kinesthetic allergy testing is available in London.

Herbal Remedies Vs Synthetic Drugs – Which Is Better?

It is difficult to bring this longstanding debate to an end. Before, when science has not yet come to the level of producing medicines after medicines, most people use what was readily available to cure their sicknesses. People before then discovered various properties (some of which are still being studied until now) that are present in the herbs they planted in their own backyards. They found out that aside from giving them food, plants also have medicinal value which were effective in treating their illnesses.

Then, science got the better of the world and gave it wonders using drugs that are made by man. These are also effective, even more effective than the traditional herbs they used before. More and more people trusted these medicines. However, it doesn’t mean that none of them continued to use the herbs. In fact, it is amazing to note that at present time, where almost everything has become modern and high-tech, there are still many people who use herbal remedies.

The purpose of this article is to weigh which among the two – herbal remedies and chemical drugs – are more effective. Which do you think?

In terms of effectiveness

Herbal remedies: In terms of effectiveness, I think it must be safe to say that yes, herbal remedies are really effective. Why else would the society continue using them even after so many thousands of years? Even doctors recommend some herbal remedies for sicknesses. What is also amazing about herbal remedies is that a single plant can be used to treat so many different diseases, unlike synthetic drugs.

However, when you take an herbal remedy for your sickness, you have to be patient to see the results. Because most herbal remedies are consumed fresh, they are not incorporated with chemicals that hasten the results.

Synthetic drugs: None could also contest the effectiveness of synthetic drugs, which many pharmaceutical companies improve and improve over time. Some people would say that they are not as effective as herbs because they are made with plant extracts, but what makes them more effective is that the compounds needed to cure a certain ailment is already separated from the other components of the plant, which helps it target the disease faster.

Synthetic drugs, aside from plant extracts, are also made with chemicals that hasten the healing process of the body.

In terms of safety

Herbal remedies: Herbal remedies are made with all natural ingredients so you are assured that there is less risk of ever encountering something harmful to the body. Also, most herbal remedies do not have side effects to the body because they are not too strong. In fact, there is less restriction with the kind of herbal medicines safe for children as compared to synthetic drugs.

There is also very little chance that an herbal remedy would trigger allergic attacks on the patient. Then again, it is better to consult the doctor before taking anything to avoid herbs that are poisonous and potentially fatal.

Synthetic drugs: Most synthetic drugs come with warnings on their labels regarding over dosage. This is because some chemicals used in making these drugs are too strong for the body to take. Even the innocent cough syrup becomes fatal once taken without medical supervision. Synthetic drugs are also not very safe for pregnant women to take.

Over dosage of some synthetic drugs may likely cause drug addiction and even organ failure. Failing to stop taking these medicines may eventually lead to death.

In terms of availability

Herbal remedies: It is said that herbal remedies were used before because they were readily available in almost all areas. Most herbal remedies can be found just outside our houses and we only need our kitchen to prepare them for medication. However, in today’s age, not many houses have the privilege of growing their own medicinal plants. Then again, using these herbal remedies is made possible by companies who sell herbs in the form of pills and the like in health stores.

Synthetic drugs: Common synthetic drugs can be bought almost anywhere, in the pharmacy and in the drugstore. You can go to any clinic and you will surely find a medicine for your headache. However, some drugs especially those that are used to treat more serious diseases can be more difficult to find. Sometimes only one hospital in the area has them and sometimes you have to go straight to the pharmaceutical company that manufactures them.

Nutrition Teamwork – How Vitamins and Minerals Work Together

Nutrition teamwork between vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals are team players, so if you want the most nutritional value from each meal, consider which foods work best together. Iron and Vitamin C are the best known nutritional "team" as they work together to increase each other's absorption. So eating salad with your steak ensures greater absorption of both iron and Vitamin C.

Calcium and Vitamin D are another great team, although combining them into one meal takes a little more forthought. Dairy products are the chief nutritional source of calcium, while our bodies can create Vitamin D from sunlight. We can also absorb Vitamin D from food such as avocado or eggs, so if you do not fancy drinking a milkshake while basking in the sun, throw a beaten egg into the milkshake or blend an avocado into a cup of Greek yogurt to make avocado Dip (add lemon juice and garlic for extra flavor).

Nutrition "teams" can also consist of two minerals. Potassium and magnesium work together to maintain heart function and the neurological system. Magnesium also assists in the transportation of potassium around the body, so a magnesium deficiency can lead to a deficiency in potassium. Both minerals are readily available in most meats, fruits and vegetables, so the right levels can generally be achieved through a balanced diet. Coconut water is a rich and refreshing source of both potassium and magnesium, if you are concerned that you are not achieving the right levels through your everyday diet.

Vitamin A is an independent player, easily absorbable from highly colored vegetables such as spinach and sweet potatoes, as well as from meats, eggs and dairy products. Once Vitamin A is stored in the liver, it relates to zinc for transport into body tissues, so a lack of zinc will increase the risk of Vitamin A deficiency. The most common symptom of Vitamin A deficiency is night blindness, when vision fails to adjust to darkness. So if you lie awake at night feeling as if you've been blindfolded, consider a bowl of pumpkin soup before lunch and dinner to supplement your intake. (Stir a spoonful of tahini paste into the soup or nibble on the pumpkin seeds afterwards to ensure you also have enough zinc).

You can have fun matching your favorite foods with their strongest team-mates, but when this looks too complicated, consider some of the foods that work single-handedly as a complete "team". Blueberries, for example, are a great source of both iron and vitamin C. Milk contains Vitamin A and zinc, and salmon provides both Vitamin D and calcium. With a wide range of fresh foods available, there is a nutritious "team" to suit everyone at any time of the day.

Globlization And Its Impact Of Insurance Industry In India


The word "Fear" has only four alphabets like love but both of them have very different e meaning. Whatever man (malor female) does for the love of their families always starts with the background of fear. Usually so many times we have been asking our selves that, what will happen if we were not there, but we keep on asking rather then doing something for it. Time is precious, it never stops for any one and we are living in the world of uncertainty; The absence of job, the uncertainty of money, the absence of property and like this the story goes continous for the whole life of a man.

A thriving insurance sector is of vital importance to every modern economy. Firstly because it encourages the habit of saving, secondly because it provides a safety net to rural and urban enterprises and productive individuals. And despite most importantly it generates long- term invisible funds for infrastructure building. The nature of the insurance business is such that the cash inflow of insurance companies is constant while the payout is deferred and contingency related.

This characteristic feature of their business makes insurance companies the largest investors in long-gestation infrastructure development projects in all developed and aspiring nations. This is the most compelling reason why private sector (and foreign) companies, which will spread the insurance habit in the societal and consumer interests are urgently required in this vital sector of the economy. Opening up of insurance to private sector including foreign participation has replied to various opportunities and challenges in India.


The Life Insurance market in India is an underdeveloped market that was onlyapped by the state owned LIC till the entry of private insurers. The penetration of life insurance products was 19 percent of the total 400 million of the insurable population. The state owned LIC sold insurance as a tax instrument, not as a product giving protection. Most customers were under- insured with no flexibility or transparency in the products. With the entry of the private insurers the rules of the game have changed.

The 12 private insurers in the life insurance market have already grabbed nearly 9 percent of the market in terms of premium income. The new business premium of the 12 private players has tripled to Rs 1000 crore in 2002- 03 over last year. Meanwhile, with regard to state owned LIC's new premium business has fallen.

Innovative products, smart marketing and aggressive distribution. That's the triple whammy combination that has enabled fledgling private insurance companies to sign up Indian customers faster than anyone ever expected. Indians, who have always seen life insurance as a tax saving device, are now suddenly turning to the private sector and snapping up the new innovative products on offer.

The growing popularity of the private insurers is evidenced in other ways. They are coining money in new niches that they have introduced. The state owned companies still dominate segments like endowments and money back policies. But in the annuity or pension products business, the private insurers have already sustained over 33 percent of the market. And in the popular unit-linked insurance schemes they have a virtual monopoly, with over 90 percent of the customers.
The private insurers also seem to be screening big in other ways- they are persuading people to take out bigger policies. For instance, the average size of a life insurance policy before privatization was around Rs 50,000. That has risen to about Rs 80,000. But the private insurers are ahead in this game and the average size of their policies is around Rs 1.1 lakh to Rs 1.2 lakh- way bigger than the industry average.

Buoyed by their sooner than expected success, almost all private insurers are fast-forwarding the second phase of their expansion plans. No doubt the aggressive situation of private insurers is already paying rich dividends. But a rejuvenated LIC is also trying to fight back to woo new customers.


In 1993, Malhotra Committee, chaired by former Finance Secretary and RBI Governor RN Malhotra, was formed to evaluate the Indian insurance industry and recommend its future direction. The Malhotra committee was set up with the objective of complementing the reforms initiated in the financial sector.

With the setup of Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) the reforms started in the Insurance sector. It has become necessary as if we compare our insurance penetration and per capita premium we are much behind then the rest of the world. The table above gives the statistics for the year 2000.

With the expected increase in per capita income to 6% for the next 10 year and with the improvement in the awareness levels the demand for insurance is expected to grow.
As per an independent consultancy company, Monitor Group has estimated a growth form Rs. 218 Billion to Rs. 1003 Billion by 2008. The estimates seem achievable as the performance of 13 life Insurance players in India for the year 2002-2003 (up to October, based on the first year premium) is Rs. 66.683 million being LIC the largest contributor with Rs. 59,187 million. As of now LIC has 2050 branches in 7 zones with strong team of 5,60,000 agents.


While nationalized insurance companies have done a commendable job in extending the volume of the business, opening up insurance sector to private players was a necessity in the context of globalization of financial sector. If traditional banking and semipublic goods industries such as banking, airlines, telecom, power etc., have significant private sector presence, continuing a state of monopoly in provision of insurance was indefinable and therefore, the globalization of insurance has been done as discussed earlier. Its impact has to be seen in the form of creating various opportunities and challenges.

The introduction of private players in the industry has added colors to the dull industry. The initiatives taken by the private players are very competitive and have given immense competition to the on time monopoly of the market LIC. Since the advent of the private players in the market the industry has seen new and innovative steps taken by the players in the sector. The new players have improved the service quality of the insurance. As a result LIC down the years have seen the declining in its career. The market share was distributed among the private players. Although LIC still holds 75% of the insurance sector the emerging nature of these private players are enough to give more competition to LIC in the near future. LIC market share has declined from 95% (2002-03) to 81% (2004-05). The following company holds the rest of the market share of the insurance industry.




LIC 82.3








AVIVA 0.79






In a tough battle to expand market shares the private sector life insurance industry consisting of 14 life insurance companies at 26% have lost 3% of market share to the state owned Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) in the domestic life insurance industry in 2006-07 . According to the figures released by Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority, the total premium of these 14 companies have shot up by 90% to Rs 19,471.83 crore in 2006-07 from Rs 10, 252 crore.

LIC with a total premium mobilization of Rs 55,934 crore has been able to retain a market share of 74.26% during the reporting period. In total the life insurance industry in first year premium has grown by 110% to Rs 75, 406 crore during 2006-07. The 2006-07 performance has thrown a few surprises in the ranking among the private sector life insurance companies. New entrants like Reliance Life and SBI Life had shown a huge growth of over 381% and 210% respectively during the year. Reliance Life which has become one of the top five companies ended the year with a premium of Rs 930 crore during the year.

Although ICICI Prudential Life Insurance remains as the No 1 private sector life insurance company during the year. Bajaj Allianz overtook ICICI Prudential in terms of monthly market share in March, for the first time ever. Bajaj's market share among private players in non-single premium for March stand at 29.1% vs. ICICI Prudential's 23.8%. Bajaj gained 4.6 percent point market share among private sector players for FY07.

Among other private players, SBI Life and Reliance Life continued to do well, each gaining 4% market share in FY07. SBI Life's growth was driven by increasing contribution from ULIP premiums. Another noteworthy developments of the 2006-07 performance has been the expansion of retail markets by the life insurance comapnies. Bajaj Alliannz Life insurance has added 20 lakh policies while ICICI Prudential has expanded over 19 lakh policies during the year.

With the largest number of life insurance policies in force in the world, Insurance happens to be a mega opportunity in India. It's a business growing at the rate of 15-20 per cent annually and currently is of the order of Rs 450 billion. Together with banking services, it adds about 7 per cent to the country's GDP. Gross premium collection is nearly 2 per cent of GDP and funds available with LIC for investments are 8 per cent of GDP.

Yet, nearly 80 per cent of Indian population is without life insurance cover while health insurance and non-life insurance continues to be below international standards. And this part of the population is also subject to weak social security and pension systems with hardly any old age income security. This itself is an indicator that growth potential for the insurance sector is immense.

A well-developed and evolved insurance sector is needed for economic development as it provides long term funds for infrastructure development and at the same time strengnts the risk taking ability. It is estimated that over the next ten years India would require investments of the order of one trillion US dollar. The Insurance sector, to some extent, can enable investments in infrastructure development to sustain economic growth of the country.

Insurance is a federal subject in India. There are two legislations that govern the sector- The Insurance Act- 1938 and the IRDA Act- 1999. The insurance sector in India has become a full circle from being an open competitive market to nationalization and back to a liberalized market again. Tracing the developments in the Indian insurance sector reveals the 360 ​​degree turn witnessed over a period of almost two centuries.

Important milestones in the life insurance business in India

1912: The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act enacted as the first statute to regulate the life insurance business.

1928: The Indian Insurance Companies Act enacted to enable the government to collect statistical information about both life and non-life insurance businesses.

1938: Earlier legislation consolidated and amended to the Insurance Act with the objective of protecting the interests of the insuring public.

1956: 245 Indian and foreign insurers and provincial societies taken over by the central government and nationalized. LIC constituted by an Act of Parliament- LIC Act 1956- with a capital contribution of Rs. 5 crore from the Government of India.

In a tough battle to expand market shares the private sector life insurance industry consisting 14 life insurance companies at 26% have lost 3% of market share to the state owned Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) in the domestic life insurance industry in 2006-07. According to the figures released by Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority the total premium these 14 companies have shot up by 90% to Rs 19,471.83 crore in 2006-07 from Rs 10, 252 crore.

LIC with a total premium mobilization of Rs 55,934 crore has been able to retain a market share of 74.26% during the reporting period. In total the life insurance industry in first year premium has grown by 110% to Rs 75, 406 crore during 2006-07. The 2006-07 performance has thrown a few surprises in the ranking among the private sector life insurance companies. New entrants like Reliance Life and SBI Life had shown a huge growth of over 381% and 210% respectively during the year. Reliance Life which has become one of the top five companies ended the year with a premium of Rs 930 crore during the year.

Although ICICI Prudential Life Insurance remains as the No 1 private sector life insurance company during the year Bajaj Allianz overtook ICICI Prudential in terms of monthly market share in March, for the first time ever. Bajaj's market share among private players in non-single premium for March stand at 29.1% vs. ICICI Prudential's 23.8%. Bajaj gained 4.6 percent point market share among private sector players for FY07.

Among other private players, SBI Life and Reliance Life continued to do well, each gaining 4% market share in FY07. SBI Life's growth was driven by increasing contribution from ULIP premiums. Another noteworthy development of the 2006-07 performance has been the expansion of retail markets by the life insurance companies. Bajaj Alliannz Life insurance has added 20 lakh policies while ICICI Prudential has expanded over 19 lakh policies during the year.


– A state monopoly has little incentive to innovative or offers a wide range of products. It can be seen by a lack of certain products from LIC's portfolio and lack of extensive risk categorization in several GIC products such as health insurance. More competition in this business will spur firms to offer several new products and more complex and extensive risk categorization.

– It would also result in better customer services and help improve the variety and price of insurance products.

– The entry of new players would speed up the spread of both life and general insurance. Spread of insurance will be measured in terms of insurance penetration and measure of density.

– With the entry of private players, it is expected that insurance business roughly 400 billion rupees per year now, more than 20 per cent per year even leaving as the relatively under developed sectors of health insurance, pen More importantly, it will also ensure a Great mobalisation of funds that can be utilized for purpose of infrastructure development that was a factor considered for globalization of insurance.

– More importantly, it will also ensure a great moblisation of funds that can be utilized for purpose of infrastructure development that was a factor considered for globalization of insurance.

– Withholding of holding of equity shares by foreign company either itself or through its subsidiary company or nominee not exceeding 26% of paid up capital of Indian partners will be operated resulting into supplementing domestic savings and increasing economic progress of nation. Agreements of various ventures have already been made to be discussed later on in this paper.

– It has been estimated that insurance sector growth more than 3 times the growth of economy in India. So business or domestic firms will attempt to invest in insurance sector. Moreover, growth of insurance business in India is 13 times the growth insurance in developed countries. So it is natural, that foreign companies would be fostering a very strong desire to invest something in Indian insurance business.

– Most important not the least generous employment opportunities will be created in the field of insurance which is burning problem of the present day today issues.


New age companies have started their business as discussed earlier. Some of these companies have been able to float 3 or 4 products only and some have targeted to achieve the level of 8 or 10 products. At present, these companies are not in a position to pose any challenge to LIC and all other four companies operating in general insurance sector, but if we see the quality and standards of the products which they issued, they can certainly be a challenge in future . Because the challenge in the entire environment caused by globalization and liberalization the industry is facing the following challenges.

– The existing insurer, LIC and GIC, have created a large group of dissatisfied customers due to the poor quality of service. Here there will be a shift of large number of customers from LIC and GIC to the private insurers.

– LIC may face problem of surrender of a large number of policies, as new insurers will woo them by offer of innovative products at lower prices.

– The corporate clients under group schemes and salary savings schemes may shift their liability from LIC to the private insurers.

– There is a likelihood of exit of young dynamic managers from LIC to the private insurer, as they will get higher package of remuneration.

– LIC has overstaffing and with the introduction of full computerization, a large number of the employees will be surplus. However they can not be retrenched. The actual costs of LIC will not be reduced. This will be a disadvantage in the competitive market, as the new insurers will operate with lean office and high technology to reduce the operating costs.

– GIC and its four subsidiary companies are going to face more challenges, because their management expenses are very high due to surplus staff. They can not reduce their number due to service rules.

– Management of claims will put strain on the financial resources, GIC and its subsidiaries since it is not up the mark.

– LIC has more than 60 products and GLC has more than 180 products in their kitty, which are outdated in the present context as they are not suitable to the changing needs of the customers. Not only that they are not competent enough to complete with the new products offered by foreign companies in the market.

– Reaching the consumer expectations on par with foreign companies such as better yield and much improved quality of service particularly in the area of ​​settlement of claims, issue of new policies, transfer of the policies and revival of policies in the liberalized market is very difficult to LIC and GIC.

– Intense competition from new insurers in winning the consumers by multi-distribution channels, which will include agents, brokers, corporate intermediaries, bank branches, affinity groups and direct marketing through telesales and interest.

– The market very soon will be flooded by a large number of products by fairly large number of insurers operating in the Indian market. Even with limited range of products offered by LIC and GIC, the consumers are confused in the market. Their confusion will further increase in the face for large number of products in the market. The existing level of awareness of the consumers for insurance products is very low. It is so because only 62% of the Indian population is literate and less than 10% educated. Even the educated consumers are ignorant about the various products of the insurance.

– The insurers will have to face an acute problem of the redressal of the consumers, grievances for deficiency in products and services.

– Increasing awareness will bring number of legal cases filled by the consumers against insurers is likely to increase substantially in future.

– Major challenges in canalizing the growth of insurance sector are product innovation, distribution network, investment management, customer service and education.


– Indian insurance industry needs the following to meet the global challenges

– Understanding the customer better will enable insurance companies to design appropriate products, determine price correctly and increase profitability.

– Selection of right type of distribution channel mix along with prudent and efficient FOS [Fleet On Street] management.

– An efficient CRM system, which would ever create sustainable competitive advantages and build a long-lasting relationship

– Insurers must follow best investment practices and must have a strong asset management company to maximize returns.

– Insurers should increase the customer base in semi urban and rural areas, which offer a huge potential.

– Promoting health insurance and using e-breaking to increase the business.


Thus, in the last on basis of above the discussion we can conclude that need for private sector entry is equitable on the basis of enhancing the efficiency of operation, achieving greater density and insurance coverage in the country and for greater mobilization of long-term savings For long gestation infrastructure projects. In the wake of such competition it is essential for the government monopolies (LIC and GIC) that they quickly up grade their technology, restructuring themselves on more efficient lines and operate as broad run enterprise. New players should not be treated as rivalries to government companies, but they can supplement in achieving the objective of growth of insurance business in India.

* Lecturer, Department of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-46
Email – [email protected]

** Ph.D Scholar, Department of Commerce, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. Email – [email protected]

Pros and Cons of Isopropyl Alcohol

Recently, the term “isopropyl alcohol” has been liken to poisonous snakes and ferocious beasts, what exactly is isopropyl alcohol? Where is it used? What are its characteristics? Is it dangerous? Perhaps too many reports have caused public panic, and therefore, direct associations with isopropyl alcohol have been made, such as with the aromatherapy bottle, and controversies arises; such reports have led to over-generalized and inadequate knowledge of isopropyl alcohol, knowing some aspects but not the others.

Dr.Billy Wang , who holds a Dotorate in Biochemistry from American New York University, and Senior researcher of German Nuremberg Biochemistry Research institute, he gave a specialized explanation from a professional angle on the above questions. Isopropyl alcohol is used more commonly as an artificial chemical additive, as a solvent for the production of Latex, shellac, volatile plant oil and resin. Actually, isopropyl alcohol can be commonly found in our daily life, like in non-alcoholic beverage, candy, dried provision food; and in everyday products including emulsion, shaving cream, ethyl alcohol cotton pad, and so on, have in them, traces of isopropyl alcohol.

Dr. Wang emphasized, that although the temperature of an ignited aromatherapy bottle is very high, even if accidentally toppled, and spilling the essential oil within, it would not of itself start a fire. Moreover, statistical data shows that, using Bel’Air’s plant essential oil as example, after ignition, the average density over 6 hours, of isopropyl alcohol content in the air is 5.4ppm, compared to 25ppm found in non-alcoholic beverage, 10~75ppm in candy, and 77ppm in dried provision food; the isopropyl alcohol density found in plant essential oils is much lower, and far below the standard by Gong Yan Institute, harmful limits of the air at tolerance standard 400ppm!

It cannot cause harm to the human body, moreover, for such a low volatile density to reach the (2% is 20000ppm) density, which is needed for an explosion to take place, is even more difficult. Furthermore, all plant essential oil, regardless of origin, contain isopropyl alcohol content; the isopropyl alcohol solvent contained in essential oils prepares the burner head to reach its functional temperature, and enables a smooth flow of essential oil through the ceramic burner head, maintains its temperature, and enables essential oil to vaporize at a moderate temperature, and enables essential oil to vaporize at a moderate temperature to spread through the air, achieving the effect of aromatherapy. Therefore, taking the spatial volume of an average home as example, under normal environmental circumstances (such as normal temperature, and open spaces), it is impossible for the rate of natural vaporization within a short time frame, to reach the level for detonation and create an explosion.

Using an average home of 30 square metres as example, to achieve the lower limits of detonation requires 36 litres of isopropyl alcohol to completely vaporize, which is almost impossible in the real life. Moreover, an average person uses essential oil in aromatherapy for only a few hours, which is enough to maintain a room full of fragrance for 24 hours. Isopropyl alcohol is common in our everyday life. Emphasis should not be to completely annihilate or simply reject its usage, but rather to understand its effects and methods of application. Public and government agencies need not regard isopropyl alcohol, which has been part of our everyday life, with undue suspicions.

Cooking Substitutions – Marsala Wine

If you’ve ever been to an Italian restaurant, you’ve encountered Marsala wine. Veal Marsala, chicken Marsala and many other classic Italian meals get their name simply by being cooked in this flavorful wine. But if you happen to be out of your vintage bottle of Marsala wine, don’t fret — most kitchens have enough of the secret ingredients on hand to fake a Marsala wine flavor.

Whether its because you don’t have Marsala on hand, or because you’d rather not have even traces of alcohol in your food, Marsala-like flavors are easily to create, though the exact flavor can not be faked. If you don’t mind alcohol and have a reasonably well-stocked liquor cabinet, just reach for dry sherry, Madeira wine, or Port. Any of these will be close enough to Marsala so that you get the bulk of the flavor you want. Of the three, Madeira is the closest match and the best substitute. Sherry is the last choice because it is salty, and also because its possible one of your guests will recognize the sherry taste and see where you “skimped” — if you consider this skimping. You can disguise the sherry taste a bit better by mixing it with vermouth (half and half sherry and vermouth). This will also add a little more complexity to the sometimes flat sherry taste.

If you have no sherry, Madeira or Port, check your stocks again and see if there’s a bit of brandy. You can mix brandy and grape juice for a Marsala fake. Use 12 parts grape juice to one part brandy, or a third of a cup of grape juice and one tablespoon brandy. If you’ve got no brandy, a Burgandy wine will work just as well, and you could probably skip the grape juice, too.

For those of you who want to skip the alcohol entirely, well, the most commonly suggested substitute is just chicken stock. Sprinkle in some sugar (less than a teaspoon). If you have figs or prunes available, puree them with some rosemary and sage blended in and add it to the recipe about a teaspoon at a time. With a little bit of the right pepper you might end up with something really wonderful, though it will not pass muster with an Italian grandmother expecting veal Marsala.

Consider getting a real bottle of Marsala wine next time. While you can fake the taste somewhat, there really is no substitute. And once you’ve used it in a recipe and know what it can do for food, you’ll want to use it much more often — it will not be like one of those exotic spices gathering dust on your herb rack.

You will also have your bottle a long time, because Marsala wine is fortified, which means, roughly, that it has a lot of alcohol in it. Keep your Marsala wine in a cool dark place and be sure you the real McCoy Marsala wine (preferably from a wine store), not Marsala cooking wine, which is just a marketing term for “of less quality”.

Choosing A Table Tennis Racket From Beginner to Tournament Player

Want to try some table tennis and need a racket? Is it time to go from that old sandpaper ping pong paddle to a racket with power and spin? Of course, you can keep borrowing a friends paddle, but since you are becoming a table tennis menace, it’s time to buy your own and make it unique to your style. This article will give you some things to consider when searching for a perfect match between you and your new table tennis racket and also acquaint you with the styles of tournament players and their equipment.

Of course, each tournament player has a unique technique and combines equipment based on their particular style and preferences. That said, here are the “main” styles of play at tournaments and the equipment choices each TENDS to prefer.

The “Close-table Attacker” emphasizes short spinny serves and tries to finish the point quickly. Attacking shots are made within a couple feet of the table with short, efficient strokes. This style is based on fast paced shots that dictate the point even when not on the offense. Generating power quickly is best done by a light carbon blade, large sweetspot, durable topsheet, and hard sponge for easy power shots and quick, driving loops.

The “Mid-distance Looper” generally starts several feet from the table which requires quick foot speed. At this distance, topspin looping or counterlooping strategies dominate rallies. In this case, several plies of wood with reinforced carbon will be a bit heavier but will supply the extra “kick” at lower racket speeds. A durable topsheet, but a softer sponge, is best for topspin rallies and counterlooping.

The “Short-pips Attacker” has very fast paced shots which benefit from a center ply of horizontal carbon laid up with intersecting vertical layers of carbon. The rubber should have short pips with hard sponge which are better for an extremely offensive backhand. These are slightly wider than traditional pips. This player wants a grippy topsheet with a soft sponge for an arcing topspin loop to set up a backhand finish shot.

The “Long-pips Chopper” uses a medium speed blade and oversized racket head for defensive placement and chops. The rubber needs to be tacky and the sponge very hard and springy so that the heavy chops can be executed with the inverted rubber. The pips should be long to help the player pinch-hit, block, and chop against heavy topspins.

The “Long-pips Blocker” use long pips rubber to confuse opponents to blunt their attack and cause unforced errors and/or set up their own attack. Blades have to be extremely fast but have great feel so no carbon fiber. The attack must be fast with an extremely soft sponge for a longer dwell time which can also serve the defensive side of play. Effective chopping, blocking, pinch hits, and punch on attacking balls are part of the equation for this racket.

The “Anti-spin Blocker” has multiple plies of soft Cottonwood for great feel creating a very slow, controllable blade covered by a soft, anti-spin rubber. This player plans to disturb their opponents with a variety of defensive shots. Should this player want to attack, a fast rubber will be necessary. In this situation the blade and rubber are a bit of conflict requiring great skill and precision.

The “All-around Player” tries to do it all! They emphasize consistent, spinny shots without excess power or speed. Several all wood plies in the blade create fast, but not extreme speed. For more offense, the rubber should be harder, good for topspin rallies and driving loops. On the other hand, this player might favor more defensive skills with a softer sponge and grippy topsheet which is better for underspin and placement.

Players using the “Chinese-penholder” and “Japanese-penholder” usually require very specialized blades and rubbers for these techniques. The Chinese style includes close to the table power loops on the forehand and requires a soft sponge for a controlled backhand. The Japanese style is extremely powerful and fast with good ball feel from Hinoki wood blades and a softer sponge for longer dwell times.


Just in case you are not quite as far along in your table tennis prowess as the players above, here is some advice for a style still in its developmental stages. The first step in choosing the right racket is to determine your interest level. Are you just playing for fun, starting to learn, playing for exercise, or training pretty seriously?

Once you have decided that, you can shop by category within the Beginner, Learner, All-Round, Sport, and Competition areas of interest. The author’s site has several rackets in each category to give you some of the best options when selecting the one that best fits your style, however, there is more to know about racket specs that will be helpful.


Sorry, you can’t have them all! Now that you’ve read about how the tournament players handle these characteristics, consider their styles before you determine what racket works best for you. Try to prioritize them in terms of your preferences. Of course, this requires knowledge about your own style and physical attributes. If your game has not matured sufficiently to be able to address these issues, choose an all around racket, until your style better reveals itself.

Take a look at the weights of each racket. Lighter blades can usually be swung more quickly, but they won’t have the mass of heavier blades. Mass means more power. A good rule of thumb for finding the most suitable weight for you is probably to look for the heaviest blade that you can still swing comfortably and quickly. Ideally, this should give you the best speed when making your shots.

Go For It! Although, the best way to choose a racket is to hold it in your hand and get a feel for it, getting a hold of every racket available to buy is impossible. The choices can be overwhelming, so the guidelines here can help you get started and narrow down the choices. If you are new to the sport, don’t try to put your own racket together using a separate blade and rubber combination yet.

For your first racket, a good choice is a racket/rubber combination that is already prepared for you like the Rossi Action Racket. It’s moderately priced and has playing characteristics that are fairly all around so that it will help you during the development phase of your game.

If you are dedicated to BUILDING a racket/blade combination that meets these general requirements, the Rosskopf Allround and the Mambo Rubber would make great choices. At the same time, you take your chosen sport to a new level of dedication by learning to build your own racket’s playing surface and frame. This is one of the great things about table tennis because most tennis players never learn to put strings in their racket!

In any case, go take a few lessons with it and compare it to what your coach uses or other rackets at your local table tennis center. After that, you will quickly get a feel for the differences. That will take time as table tennis racket variations can be very subtle, especially if you are not well versed in all the shots in the sport!

At some point, you will know whether its time to build a blade/rubber combination that more meets your game and physical abilities. Whether your buying a complete racket or building one, the first choice is handle type among the anatomic, flared, or straight varieties. To choose that, style will play a role.

The anatomic handle was developed to fit the natural curves of your hand and has a bump in the center, so that a player’s hand can wrap comfortably around it. The flared handle widens at the end to allow players with strong shots to maintain control of their racket during those key points.

The straight handle offers more flexibility in grip, as players can alternate easily between forehand and backhand. This handle is often preferred if players tend to twiddle (shift their hand position on the handle when switching between forehand and backhand) or play a defensive game. Each handle type has its strengths, so choose wisely once you are familiar with your style!

Next on the agenda is choosing the type of rubber. Table tennis rubber sheets generally consist of a top sheet and a layer of sponge underneath. The top sheet can either be pips out or inverted (smooth out, pips in), depending on your preference. Pips out surfaces are the classic surface of table tennis, but as the sport evolved, inverted rubbers grew increasingly popular. In general, pips out rubber, usually offers more control, but less spin variation.

On the other hand, inverted rubber tends to give you more spin and speed, but with less control. For more additional effect, as you read above, players can opt for a layer of sponge underneath the top sheet, which basically enhances spin and speed of the ball. The thicker the sponge, the longer the “dwell” time of the ball, and thus more spin and less speed. Conversely, the thinner the sponge, the shorter the “dwell” time of the ball, which means more speed and less time for adding spin. Whew!

Although, the best way to choose a racket is to hold it in your hand and get a feel for it, it’s just not practical to try even most of the rackets available. Visiting a table tennis center is a great way to meet new players, find a coach, and try some different rackets. Be part of this new community of great people and you will get advice on what can be an overwhelming decision. Be a table tennis menace!