Good Diet to Get Rid of Parasites

Any living being in this world needs nutrition to live and this goes same in case of parasites too. A healthy intestinal tract is very important to prevent attacks by various microorganisms or pathogens. It is well known fact that parasites can be effectively prevented by taking high dosages of probiotics substances such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria and L. bulgaricus.

Many of the folk remedy experts favor taking food that is having strong odor, garlic being one of them. Garlic is considered to be having natural ant parasitic properties as well as antibacterial, fungal and viral action. Parasites present in the intestines do like sweet fruits and sugary foods. It can include juices, canned/frozen fruits, high fructose items, sugarcane, syrups etc. Refined flour items and sugary items are also to be avoided as much as possible. Fermented foods, bakery items, sweet sprouts, high gluten content foods, beans, starchy grains etc are to be avoided.

On the other hand, yogurt, eggs, seafood, millet, amaranth, buckwheat can be taken since parasites do not like them. Goat milk, olive, pumpkin, sunflower and saffron are good to have since they create an environment that is not healthy for parasites present in the intestines. Some of the dieticians and naturopaths suggest taking soaked almonds (the best one), almond butter and caraway to inhibit the growth of the parasites. Turkey, chicken, brown rice, sweet potatoes, mint, coriander seeds and/or leaves, holy basils are good to have as all of them carry natural anthelminthic properties and hence they all can kill parasites and their eggs.

Soymilk, onions, cloves, fennel seeds, apple cider vinegar, ginger and asafetida are few of the most effective edible items that works specific on parasites and their eggs present in the intestines and terminate them. In addition, they not only help you getting rid of parasites, but they also improve the digestion and also assimilation. They accelerate the metabolic rate in the body and hence restore the hormonal levels and keep the body healthy.

Some of the herbs can also be taken as daily health supplements. Herbs like Butea monosperma, Neem, Terminalia belirica, Emblica ribes, cinnamon, cardamom are considered to be good for intestines since they improve digestion and also terminate parasites and their eggs. They help restoring the digestion and relieve abdominal cramp, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal related problems.

Some of the ancient medical practitioner favors taking buttermilk with coriander seeds, cumin seed powder and little bit of rock salt. Such type of solution would be great treating any kind of parasites’ infestation in the intestines. This solution can be taken daily without any worries. There are many detox diet that are readily available in the market in the name of ‘intestinal detox diet’ that contain pills made up of the blend of effective herbs and they are to be taken regularly for a certain period. Latest researches reveal that turmeric can also help getting rid of parasites and their eggs. One can take raw turmeric or can go for its powder.

Related Articles:

Top Colon Cleansing Products Based on Customer Reviews -> Colon Cleansing Products

Benefits of Colon Cleansing

Banking Fraud – Prevention and Control

Banking Fraud is posing threat to Indian Economy. Its vibrant effect can be understood be the fact that in the year 2004 number of Cyber Crime were 347 in India which rose to 481 in 2005 showing an increase of 38.5% while I.P.C. category crime stood at 302 in 2005 including 186 cases of cyber fraud and 68 cases cyber forgery. Thus it becomes very important that occurrence of such frauds should be minimized. More upsetting is the fact that such frauds are entering in Banking Sector as well.

In the present day, Global Scenario Banking System has acquired new dimensions. Banking did spread in India. Today, the banking system has entered into competitive markets in areas covering resource mobilization, human resource development, customer services and credit management as well.

Indian’s banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit, the most striking of which is its reach. In fact, Indian banks are now spread out into the remotest areas of our country. Indian banking, which was operating in a highly comfortable and protected environment till the beginning of 1990s, has been pushed into the choppy waters of intense competition.

A sound banking system should possess three basic characteristics to protect depositor’s interest and public faith. Theses are (i) a fraud free culture, (ii) a time tested Best Practice Code, and (iii) an in house immediate grievance remedial system. All these conditions are their missing or extremely weak in India. Section 5(b) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 defines banking… “Banking is the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.” But if his money has fraudulently been drawn from the bank the latter is under strict obligation to pay the depositor. The bank therefore has to ensure at all times that the money of the depositors is not drawn fraudulently. Time has come when the security aspects of the banks have to be dealt with on priority basis.

The banking system in our country has been taking care of all segments of our socio-economic set up. The Article contains a discussion on the rise of banking frauds and various methods that can be used to avoid such frauds. A bank fraud is a deliberate act of omission or commission by any person carried out in the course of banking transactions or in the books of accounts, resulting in wrongful gain to any person for a temporary period or otherwise, with or without any monetary loss to the bank. The relevant provisions of Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Contract Act, and Negotiable Instruments Act relating to banking frauds has been cited in the present Article.

EVOLUTION OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

Banking system occupies an important place in a nation’s economy. A banking institution is indispensable in a modern society. It plays a pivotal role in economic development of a country and forms the core of the money market in an advanced country.

Banking industry in India has traversed a long way to assume its present stature. It has undergone a major structural transformation after the nationalization of 14 major commercial banks in 1969 and 6 more on 15 April 1980. The Indian banking system is unique and perhaps has no parallels in the banking history of any country in the world.

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA-ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVE

The Reserve Bank of India has an important role to play in the maintenance of the exchange value of the rupee in view of the close interdependence of international trade and national economic growth and well being. This aspect is of the wider responsibly of the central bank for the maintenance of economic and financial stability. For this the bank is entrusted with the custody and the management of country’s international reserves; it acts also as the agent of the government in respect of India’s membership of the international monetary fund. With economic development the bank also performs a variety of developmental and promotional functions which in the past were registered being outside the normal purview of central banking. It also acts an important regulator.

BANK FRAUDS: CONCEPT AND DIMENSIONS

Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financial sector, which is vital for the economy. With the nationalization of banks in 1969, they also have emerged as engines for social change. After Independence, the banks have passed through three stages. They have moved from the character based lending to ideology based lending to today competitiveness based lending in the context of India’s economic liberalization policies and the process of linking with the global economy.

While the operations of the bank have become increasingly significant banking frauds in banks are also increasing and fraudsters are becoming more and more sophisticated and ingenious. In a bid to keep pace with the changing times, the banking sector has diversified it business manifold. And the old philosophy of class banking has been replaced by mass banking. The challenge in management of social responsibility with economic viability has increased.

DEFINITION OF FRAUD

Fraud is defined as “any behavior by which one person intends to gain a dishonest advantage over another”. In other words , fraud is an act or omission which is intended to cause wrongful gain to one person and wrongful loss to the other, either by way of concealment of facts or otherwise.

Fraud is defined u/s 421 of the Indian Penal Code and u/s 17 of the Indian Contract Act. Thus essential elements of frauds are:

1. There must be a representation and assertion;

2. It must relate to a fact;

3. It must be with the knowledge that it is false or without belief in its truth; and

4. It must induce another to act upon the assertion in question or to do or not to do certain act.

BANK FRAUDS

Losses sustained by banks as a result of frauds exceed the losses due to robbery, dacoity, burglary and theft-all put together. Unauthorized credit facilities are extended for illegal gratification such as case credit allowed against pledge of goods, hypothecation of goods against bills or against book debts. Common modus operandi are, pledging of spurious goods, inletting the value of goods, hypothecating goods to more than one bank, fraudulent removal of goods with the knowledge and connivance of in negligence of bank staff, pledging of goods belonging to a third party. Goods hypothecated to a bank are found to contain obsolete stocks packed in between goods stocks and case of shortage in weight is not uncommon.

An analysis made of cases brings out broadly the under mentioned four major elements responsible for the commission of frauds in banks.

1. Active involvement of the staff-both supervisor and clerical either independent of external elements or in connivance with outsiders.

2. Failure on the part of the bank staff to follow meticulously laid down instructions and guidelines.

3. External elements perpetuating frauds on banks by forgeries or manipulations of cheques, drafts and other instruments.

4. There has been a growing collusion between business, top banks executives, civil servants and politicians in power to defraud the banks, by getting the rules bent, regulations flouted and banking norms thrown to the winds.

FRAUDS-PREVENTION AND DETECTION

A close study of any fraud in bank reveals many common basic features. There may have been negligence or dishonesty at some stage, on part of one or more of the bank employees. One of them may have colluded with the borrower. The bank official may have been putting up with the borrower’s sharp practices for a personal gain. The proper care which was expected of the staff, as custodians of banks interest may not have been taken. The bank’s rules and procedures laid down in the Manual instructions and the circulars may not have been observed or may have been deliberately ignored.

Bank frauds are the failure of the banker. It does not mean that the external frauds do not defraud banks. But if the banker is upright and knows his job, the task of defrauder will become extremely difficult, if not possible.

Detection of Frauds

Despite all care and vigilance there may still be some frauds, though their number, periodicity and intensity may be considerably reduced. The following procedure would be very helpful if taken into consideration:

1. All relevant data-papers, documents etc. Should be promptly collected. Original vouchers or other papers forming the basis of the investigation should be kept under lock and key.

2. All persons in the bank who may be knowing something about the time, place a modus operandi of the fraud should be examined and their statements should be recorded.

3. The probable order of events should thereafter be reconstructed by the officer, in his own mind.

4. It is advisable to keep the central office informed about the fraud and further developments in regard thereto.

Classification of Frauds and Action Required by Banks

The Reserve Bank of India had set-up a high level committee in 1992 which was headed by Mr. A… Ghosh, the then Dy. Governor Reserve Bank of India to inquire into various aspects relating to frauds malpractice in banks. The committee had noticed/observed three major causes for perpetration of fraud as given hereunder:

1. Laxity in observance of the laid down system and procedures by operational and supervising staff.

2. Over confidence reposed in the clients who indulged in breach of trust.

3. Unscrupulous clients by taking advantages of the laxity in observance of established, time tested safeguards also committed frauds.

In order to have uniformity in reporting cases of frauds, RBI considered the question of classification of bank frauds on the basis of the provisions of the IPC.

Given below are the Provisions and their Remedial measures that can be taken.

1. Cheating (Section 415, IPC)

Remedial Measures.

The preventive measures in respect of the cheating can be concentrated on cross-checking regarding identity, genuineness, verification of particulars, etc. in respect of various instruments as well as persons involved in encashment or dealing with the property of the bank.

2. Criminal misappropriation of property (Section 403 IPC).

Remedial Measure

Criminal misappropriation of property, presuppose the custody or control of funds or property, so subjected, with that of the person committing such frauds. Preventive measures, for this class of fraud should be taken at the level the custody or control of the funds or property of the bank generally vests. Such a measure should be sufficient, it is extended to these persons who are actually handling or having actual custody or control of the fund or movable properties of the bank.

3. Criminal breach of trust (Section 405, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Care should be taken from the initial step when a person comes to the bank. Care needs to be taken at the time of recruitment in bank as well.

4. Forgery (Section 463, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Both the prevention and detection of frauds through forgery are important for a bank. Forgery of signatures is the most frequent fraud in banking business. The bank should take special care when the instrument has been presented either bearer or order; in case a bank pays forged instrument he would be liable for the loss to the genuine costumer.

5. Falsification of accounts (Section 477A)

Remedial Measure

Proper diligence is required while filling of forms and accounts. The accounts should be rechecked on daily basis.

6. Theft (Section 378, IPC)

Remedial Measures

Encashment of stolen’ cheque can be prevented if the bank clearly specify the age, sex and two visible identify action marks on the body of the person traveler’s cheques on the back of the cheque leaf. This will help the paying bank to easily identify the cheque holder. Theft from lockers and safe deposit vaults are not easy to commit because the master-key remains with the banker and the individual key of the locker is handed over to the costumer with due acknowledgement.

7. Criminal conspiracy (Section 120 A, IPC)

In the case of State of Andhra Pradesh v. IBS Prasad Rao and Other, the accused, who were clerks in a cooperative Central Bank were all convicted of the offences of cheating under Section 420 read along with Section 120 A. all the four accused had conspired together to defraud the bank by making false demand drafts and receipt vouchers.

8. Offences relating to currency notes and banks notes (Section 489 A-489E, IPC)

These sections provide for the protection of currency-notes and bank notes from forgery. The offences under section are:

(a) Counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(b) Selling, buying or using as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank notes. Knowing the same to be forged or counterfeit.

(c) Possession of forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank-notes, knowing or counterfeit and intending to use the same as genuine.

(d) Making or passing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(e) Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank notes.

Most of the above provisions are Cognizable Offences under Section 2(c) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

FRAUD PRONE AREAS IN DIFFERENT ACCOUNTS

The following are the potential fraud prone areas in Banking Sector. In addition to those areas I have also given kinds of fraud that are common in these areas.

Savings Bank Accounts

The following are some of the examples being played in respect of savings bank accounts:

(a) Cheques bearing the forged signatures of depositors may be presented and paid.

(b) Specimen signatures of the depositors may be changed, particularly after the death of depositors,

(c) Dormant accounts may be operated by dishonest persons with or without collusion of bank employees, and

(d) Unauthorized withdrawals from customer’s accounts by employee of the bank maintaining the savings ledger and later destruction of the recent vouchers by them.

Current Account Fraud

The following types are likely to be committed in case of current accounts.

(a) Opening of frauds in the names of limited companies or firms by unauthorized persons;

(b) Presentation and payment of cheques bearing forged signatures;

(c) Breach of trust by the employees of the companies or firms possessing cheque leaves duly signed by the authorized signatures;

(d) Fraudulent alteration of the amount of the cheques and getting it paid either at the counter or though another bank.

Frauds In Case Of Advances

Following types may be committed in respect of advances:

(a) Spurious gold ornaments may be pledged.

(b) Sub-standard goods may be pledged with the bank or their value may be shown at inflated figures.

(c) Same goods may be hypothecated in favour of different banks.

LEGAL REGIME TO CONTROL BANK FRAUDS

Frauds constitute white-collar crime, committed by unscrupulous persons deftly advantage of loopholes existing in systems/procedures. The ideal situation is one there is no fraud, but taking ground realities of the nation’s environment and human nature’s fragility, an institution should always like to keep the overreach of frauds at the minimum occurrence level.

Following are the relevant sections relating to Bank Frauds

Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860)

(a) Section 23 “Wrongful gain”.-

“Wrongful gain” is gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled.

(b) “Wrongful loss”

“Wrongful loss” is the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled.

(c) Gaining wrongfully.

Losing wrongfully-A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property.

(d) Section 24. “Dishonestly”

Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing “dishonestly”.

(e) Section 28. “Counterfeit”

A person is said to “counterfeit” who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practice deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practiced.

BREACH OF TRUST

1. Section 408- Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant.

2. Section 409- Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent.

3. Section 416- Cheating by personating

4. Section 419- Punishment for cheating by personation.

OFFENCES RELATING TO DOCMENTS

1) Section 463-Forgery

2) Section 464 -Making a false document

3) Section 465- Punishment for forgery.

4) Section 467- Forgery of valuable security, will, etc

5) Section 468- Forgery for purpose of cheating

6) Section 469- Forgery for purpose of harming reputation

7) Section 470- Forged document.

8) Section 471- Using as genuine a forged document

9) Section 477- Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security.

10) Section 477A- Falsification of accounts.

THE RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1934

Issue of demand bills and notes Section 31.

Provides that only Bank and except provided by Central Government shall be authorized to draw, accept, make or issue any bill of exchange, hundi, promissory note or engagement for the payment of money payable to bearer on demand, or borrow, owe or take up any sum or sums of money on the bills, hundis or notes payable to bearer on demand of any such person

THE NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT, 1881

Holder’s right to duplicate of lost bill Section 45A.

1. The finder of lost bill or note acquires no title to it. The title remains with the true owner. He is entitled to recover from the true owner.

2. If the finder obtains payment on a lost bill or note in due course, the payee may be able to get a valid discharge for it. But the true owner can recover the money due on the instrument as damages from the finder.

Section 58

When an Instrument is obtained by unlawful means or for unlawful consideration no possessor or indorse who claims through the person who found or so obtained the instrument is entitled to receive the amount due thereon from such maker, acceptor or holder, or from any party prior to such holder, unless such possessor or indorse is, or some person through whom he claims was, a holder thereof in due course.

Section 85:

Cheque payable to order.

1. By this section, bankers are placed in privileged position. It provides that if an order cheque is indorsed by or on behalf of the payee, and the banker on whom it is drawn pays it in due course, the banker is discharged. He can debit his customer with the amount so paid, though the endorsement of the payee might turn out to be a forgery.

2. The claim protection under this section the banker has to prove that the payment was a payment in due course, in good faith and without negligence.

Section 87. Effect of material alteration

Under this section any alteration made without the consent of party would be void. Alteration would be valid only if is made with common intention of the party.

Section 138. Dishonour of cheque for insufficiency, etc., of funds in the account.

Where any cheque drawn by a person on an account maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount of money to another person from out of that account for the discharge, in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability, is returned by the bank unpaid. either because of the amount of money standing to the credit of that account is insufficient to honour the cheque or that it exceeds the amount arranged to be paid from that account by an agreement made with that bank, such person shall be deemed to have committed an offence and shall, without prejudice.

Section 141(1) Offences by companies.

If the person committing an offence under Section 138 is a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

SECURITY REGIME IN BANKING SYSTEM

Security implies sense of safety and of freedom from danger or anxiety. When a banker takes a collateral security, say in the form of gold or a title deed, against the money lent by him, he has a sense of safety and of freedom from anxiety about the possible non-payment of the loan by the borrower. These should be communicated to all strata of the organization through appropriate means. Before staff managers should analyze current practices. Security procedure should be stated explicitly and agreed upon by each user in the specific environment. Such practices ensure information security and enhance availability. Bank security is essentially a defense against unforced attacks by thieves, dacoits and burglars.

PHYSICAL SECURITY MEASURES-CONCEPT

A large part of banks security depends on social security measures. Physical security measures can be defined as those specific and special protective or defensive measures adopted to deter, detect, delay, defend and defeat or to perform any one or more of these functions against culpable acts, both covert and covert and acclamations natural events. The protective or defensive, measures adopted involve construction, installation and deployment of structures, equipment and persons respectively.

The following are few guidelines to check malpractices:

1. To rotate the cash work within the staff.

2. One person should not continue on the same seat for more than two months.

3. Daybook should not be written by the Cashier where an other person is available to the job

4. No cash withdrawal should be allowed within passbook in case of withdrawal by pay order.

5. The branch manager should ensure that all staff members have recorder their presence in the attendance registrar, before starting work.

Execution of Documents

1. A bank officer must adopt a strict professional approach in the execution of documents. The ink and the pen used for the execution must be maintained uniformly.

2. Bank documents should not be typed on a typewriter for execution. These should be invariably handwritten for execution.

3. The execution should always be done in the presence of the officer responsible for obtain them,

4. The borrowers should be asked to sign in full signatures in same style throughout the documents.

5. Unless there is a specific requirement in the document, it should not be got attested or witnessed as such attestation may change the character of the instruments and the documents may subject to ad volrem stamp duty.

6. The paper on which the bank documents are made should be pilfer proof. It should be unique and available to the banks only.

7. The printing of the bank documents should have highly artistic intricate and complex graphics.

8. The documents executed between Banker and Borrowers must be kept in safe custody,

CHANGES IN LEGISLATIONS AFTER ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS

1. Section 91 of IPC shall be amended to include electronic documents also.

2. Section 92 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 shall be amended to include commuter based communications

3. Section 93 of Bankers Book Evidence Act, 1891 has been amended to give legal sanctity for books of account maintained in the electronic form by the banks.

4. Section 94 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1939 shall be amended to facilitate electronic fund transfers between the financial institutions and the banks. A new clause (pp) has been inserted in Section 58(2).

RECENT TRENDS OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

In the banking and financial sectors, the introduction of electronic technology for transactions, settlement of accounts, book-keeping and all other related functions is now an imperative. Increasingly, whether we like it or not, all banking transactions are going to be electronic. The thrust is on commercially important centers, which account for 65 percent of banking business in terms of value. There are now a large number of fully computerized branches across the country.

A switchover from cash-based transactions to paper-based transactions is being accelerated. Magnetic Ink character recognition clearing of cheques is now operational in many cities, beside the four metro cities. In India, the design, management and regulation of electronically-based payments system are becoming the focus of policy deliberations. The imperatives of developing an effective, efficient and speedy payment and settlement systems are getting sharper with introduction of new instruments such as credit cards, telebanking, ATMs, retail Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Electronic Clearing Services (ECS). We are moving towards smart cards, credit and financial Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for straight through processing.

Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001

Further the Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001 was introduced in Parliament to curb the menace of Bank Fraud. The Act was to prohibit, control, investigate financial frauds; recover and restore properties subject to such fraud; prosecute for causing financial fraud and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Under the said act the term Financial Fraud has been defined as under:

Section 512 – Financial Fraud

Financial frauds means and includes any of the following acts committed by a person or with his connivance, or by his agent, in his dealings with any bank or financial institution or any other entity holding public funds;

1. The suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by one who does not believe it to be true;

2. The active concealment of a fact by one having knowledge or belief of the fact;

3. A promise made with out any intention of performing it;

4. Any other act fitted to deceive;

5. Any such act or omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent.

Provided that whoever acquires, possesses or transfers any proceeds of financial fraud or enters into any transaction which is related to proceeds of fraud either directly or indirectly or conceals or aids in the concealment of the proceeds of financial fraud, commits financial fraud.

513(a) – Punishment for Financial Fraud

Whoever commits financial fraud shall be: (a) Punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term, which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.

(b)Whoever commits serious financial fraud shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years but shall not be less than five years and shall also be liable for fine up to double the amount involved in such fraud.

Provided that in both (a) and (b) all funds, bank accounts and properties acquired using such funds subjected to the financial fraud as may reasonably be attributed by the investigating agency shall be recovered and restored to the rightful owner according to the procedure established by law.

CONCLUSION

The Indian Banking Industry has undergone tremendous growth since nationalization of 14 banks in the year 1969. There has an almost eight times increase in the bank branches from about 8000 during 1969 to mote than 60,000 belonging to 289 commercial banks, of which 66 banks are in private sector.

It was the result of two successive Committees on Computerization (Rangarajan Committee) that set the tone for computerization in India. While the first committee drew the blue print in 1983-84 for the mechanization and computerization in banking industry, the second committee set up in 1989 paved the way for integrated use of telecommunications and computers for applying technogical breakthroughs in banking sector.

However, with the spread of banking and banks, frauds have been on a constant increase. It could be a natural corollary to increase in the number of customers who are using banks these days. In the year 2000 alone we have lost Rs 673 crores in as many as 3,072 number of fraud cases. These are only reported figures. Though, this is 0.075% of Rs 8,96,696 crores of total deposits and 0.15% of Rs 4,44,125 crores of loans & advances, there are any numbers of cases that are not reported. There were nearly 65,800 bank branches of a total of 295 commercial banks in India as on June 30, 2001 reporting a total of nearly 3,072 bank fraud cases. This makes nearly 10.4 frauds per bank and roughly 0.47 frauds per branch.

An Expert Committee on Bank Frauds (Chairman: Dr.N.L.Mitra) submitted its Report to RBI in September 2001. The Committee examined and suggested both the preventive and curative aspects of bank frauds.

The important recommendations of the Committee include:

o A need for including financial fraud as a criminal offence;

o Amendments to the IPC by including a new chapter on financial fraud;

o Amendments to the Evidence Act to shift the burden of proof on the accused person;

o Special provision in the Cr. PC for properties involved in the Financial Fraud.

o Confiscating unlawful gains; and preventive measures including the development of Best Code Procedures by banks and financial institutions.

Thus it can be concluded that following measures should necessarily be adopted by the Ministry of Finance in order to reduce cases of Fraud.

o There must be a Special Court to try financial fraud cases of serious nature.

o The law should provide separate structural and recovery procedure. Every bank must have a domestic enquiry officer to enquire about the civil dimension of fraud.

o A fraud involving an amount of ten crore of rupees and above may be considered serious and be tried in the Special Court.

The Twenty-ninth Report of the Law Commission had dealt some categories of crimes one of which is “offences calculated to prevent and obstruct the economic development of the country and endanger its economic health.” Offences relating to Banking Fraud will fall under this category. The most important feature of such offences is that ordinarily they do not involve an individual direct victim. They are punishable because they harm the whole society. It is clear that money involved in Bank belongs to public. They deposit there whole life’ security in Banks and in case of Dacoity or Robbery in banks the public will be al lost. Thus it is important that sufficient efforts should be taken in this regard.

There exists a new kind of threat in cyber world. Writers are referring it as “Salami Attack” under this a special software is used for transferring the amount from the account of the individual. Hence the culprits of such crimes should be found quickly and should be given strict punishment. Moreover there is requirement of more number of IT professionals who will help in finding a solution against all these security threats.

Health and Nutrition During Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a nine month journey… It is a time in your life to feel happy, excited, serene and joyful. However it is also quite normal to experience anxieties about the birth and worrying about whether you are nourishing yourself properly, exercising, keeping, calm, positive, loving thoughts and emotions within your being.

Pregnancy lasts 39 weeks or nine months from conception and is looked at in three stages.

Health & Nutrition During Pregnancy

To ensure that your baby develops in a healthy environment, you should keep your body as fit and well nourished as you possibly can. Do not think in terms of devising a special diet for pregnancy, it is more to do with eating a good variety of the right foods which are those that are rich in the essential nutrients.

Weight Gain

The amount of weight put on by women in pregnancy varies between 9 – 16 kilograms, with the most rapid gain usually between weeks 24 and 32.

Don’t “eat for two”. Some 46 percent of women gain too much weight during pregnancy.

Diet During Pregnancy

You ARE What You Eat therefore Your Baby Is What You Eat!

What You Eat affects your baby’s future. What you eat in the following nine months can impact your baby’s health, as well as your own, for decades to come.

A good diet is vital to health during pregnancy, and to the normal development of the baby. The time to pay attention to diet, and if necessary change it for the better, is several months prior to conception and not when pregnancy is confirmed.

During the critical early weeks the normal, healthy development of the embryo depends on the mother’s state of nutritional health and also her toxic state.

Mineral and vitamin imbalances which would probably go unnoticed in a child or adult can have a disastrous effect on the developing baby.

This is because the cells in the embryo are growing at such a rapid rate, causing an exaggerated response to any harmful influences.

A natural, organic, whole food diet is the only one which will adequately serve during pregnancy.

A high quality diet is needed to maintain your own health and the best possible conditions for the baby to develop.

As our environment becomes more polluted and the soils more depleted of nutrients, going 100% organic, if possible, is the best thing you can do for oneself, and for a developing fetus, and last but not least; the environment.

Pesticides, herbicides, and other forms of pollution interfere with the metabolic pathways of many nutrients and thus indirectly interfere with the development of the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems.

Eating as many of our foods in their live, raw form preserves 70 to 80% more vitamins and minerals, 50% more bioactive protein, and up to 96% more bioavailable vitamin B12.

Grains, nuts and seeds are the most potent health-building foods of all. Eaten raw or sprouted if possible (some grains need to be cooked), they contain all the essential nutrients for human growth, sustenance, and ongoing optimal health.

A well balanced diet is based on whole cereals and grains (brown bread, rice, pasta, buckwheat, rye, oats), nuts and seeds, pulses and beans, fresh fruit and vegetables, pure unrefined oils such as cold pressed olive oil, with some fish and eggs if required.

Fruit and vegetables are all excellent sources of vitamins, minerals and trace elements provided they are eaten in the right way.

They should be fresh, either raw or quickly cooked, steamed or stir-fried, and preferably consumed immediately after they are harvested.

Salt is needed to maintain the extra volume of blood, to supply enough placental blood, and to guard against dehydration and shock from blood loss at birth, (except in cases of kidney and heart problems) Suggested form of salt is Himalayan Pink Salt.

Proteins

• Form the basic building blocks of all our body tissues, cells, hormones, and antibodies.

• Food must fuel the growth of the uterus, which can grow to 30 times its original size over the nine months gestation period Add the development of breasts, placenta, development of breast milk, the baby’s body.

Proteins are divided into complete and incomplete:

Complete proteins contain significant amounts of all the essential amino acids, you find them in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and soya bean products.

Vegetable proteins are incomplete and contain only some of the essential amino acids. Some vegetarian sources of complete protein are: buckwheat, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, and almonds.

Plant proteins are easier for our bodies to digest and produce less toxic waste than animal proteins. The fiber in plants also has a very beneficial effect on the bowel; it ensures healthy bowel movements and the correct bacterial population in the gut, and prevents the buildup of putrefactive bacteria produced by excess animal proteins.

Eating meat and meat products also carries the risk from chemical and hormonal residues found in intensively reared animals. Also soya beans or soy products are mostly genetically engineered, hence it is wise to stay clear of them.

Pregnant women need about 60 to 75 grams of protein a day.

The best and cleanest sources of protein are green vegetables, spirulina, seeds (hemp, flax, sesame, poppy, sunflower, chia, quinoa, amaranth ).

Real strength and building material comes from:

• green – leafy vegetables, seeds and superfoods. They contain all the amino acids we require.

Essential Fatty Acids are vital to :

• the development of the baby’s nervous and immune systems. They build the cell walls in all our tissues, and so that trace elements and fat-soluble vitamins (A,E,D, and K) can be absorbed.

• EFA’s are needed to make adrenal and sex hormones, and to maintain a healthy population of bacteria in the gut.

• They are also essential to the normal development of the fetus’s brain: 70 per cent of all EFAs go to the brain.

The Best Fatty Foods include:

Avocados, Borage Seed Oil, Raw Cacao Beans (Chocolate Nuts), Coconut oil/ butter, Flax seed and its oil, Grape seeds, Hemp seed and its oil (cold pressed), RAW Nuts of all types (cashews must be soft to be truly “raw”), Nut Butters (almond butter is excellent), Olives and their oil (stone pressed or cold pressed), Peanuts (must be certified aflatoxin free), Poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds and their oil (cold pressed), Sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tahini (sesame butter), or even better if you can get hold of it at a health food store unhulled tahini (an alkaline fat, high in calcium), Young Coconuts (young Thai coconuts are available in the US at Asian markets), Coconut milk, coconuts (mature).

SUPERFOODS

Superfoods are foods with extraordinary properties. Usually they contain all essential amino acids, high levels of minerals, and a wide array of unique, even rare, nutrients. I have included the superfoods in the nutritional tips below.

Some prominent superfoods to include:

1) Himalayan Pink Salt – offers 84 minerals exactly identical to the elements in your body.

2) Spirulina (a spiral algae consumed for thousands of years by indigenous people in Mexico and Africa)

-It has the highest concentration of protein on Earth. 60%

-It is also very high in Iron, and many other vitamins and minerals.

-It is one of the highest sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the planet. Only mother’s milk is higher.

-It is recommended to take more Spirulina during breastfeeding because of the GLA.

-Spirulina is very high in human-active B12.

3) Blue-Green Algae (Klamath lake algae wonderful brain food). It is high in protein, chlorophyll, vitamins, and minerals and enhances the immune system.

I value it in pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation for its enhancing effect on brain function.

4) Bee Pollen (wild pollen, not orchard pollen, should be used and should come from ethically harvested sources where bees are treated respectfully. Bee Pollen is nature’s most complete food) All amino acids, immune system, brain, eyes.

5) Flax, Sunflower, Chia, Sesame and pumpkin seeds are the best to use. Flaxseeds are excellent and the highest vegetarian source of omega-3-essential fatty acids, important for the immune system, nervous system, and brain development. I recommend one to two tablespoons daily of the uncooked and unheated oil or three to six tablespoons of freshly ground flaxseeds. (Use a coffee grinder). You may also grind the other above mentioned seeds and add them to salads, and fruit salads.

6) Wild young coconuts (not be confused with white Thai coconuts found in markets, wild coconuts are one of the greatest foods on earth. The coconut water and soft inner flesh are strength enhancing, electrolyte-rich, mineral-rich, youthening and invigorating. Great in smoothies.

NUTRITION TIPS

Here Are Some Nutrition Tips that will help you both:

1) Get Enough Folic Acid. 400 micrograms (mcg) daily. Folic Acid reduces chance of birth defects such as spina bifida. Especially in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy.

2) Best Food Sources of Folic Acid are: RAW Green leafy vegetables, including spinach, kale, beet greens, beet root, chard, asparagus, and broccoli. Starchy vegetables containing folic acid are corn, lima beans, green peas, sweet peas, sweet potatoes, artichokes, okra, and parsnips. Oats are high in folic acid as well as whole wheat brown bread. Many fruits have folic acid such as oranges, cantaloupe, pineapple, banana, and many berries including loganberries, boysenberries, and strawberries. Also fresh sprouts such as lentil, mung bean sprouts are excellent sources. REMINDER: Folic acid is available from fresh, unprocessed food, which is why it is so common a deficient in our culture’s processed, cooked food diet.

3) Eat Your Fish. Getting enough DHA (found in abundance in seafood and flaxseed) is one of the most important things you can do for you and your developing baby’s health. DHA is the omega-3 fatty acid that can boost baby’s brain development before birth, leading to better vision, memory, motor skills and language comprehension in early childhood. Eat at least 12 ounces a week of low-mercury fish, or take a DHA supplement such as Krill Oil.

• Avoid large, predatory fish such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish. (As big fish eat smaller fish, the larger, longer-living ones accumulate more mercury).

• Seaweed and Cilantro remove heavy metals and radioactive isotopes from the tissues.

4) Avoid Alcohol – The main risk of consuming alcohol during pregnancy is the development of “fetal alcohol syndrome” (FAS). mother.. NO AMOUNT IS SAFE. AVOID TOTALLY.

5) Avoid Caffeine: In high amounts causes birth defects and still births, miscarriages and premature delivery.

6) Avoid Drugs – As far as possible all orthodox drugs should be avoided during pregnancy, especially in the first three months. Consider natural alternatives and visiting a medical herbalist or nutritionist prior to conception.

FOODS THAT MAY CAUSE INFECTIONS

Although the chance of contracting one of these rare infections is limited, you will reduce this likelihood even further if you follow the basic guidelines given here.

Listeriosis – caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this is a very rare infection. Its symptoms are similar to flu and gastroenteritis and it can cause still birth.

Toxoplasmosis – usually symptomless (apart from mild flu symptoms), this can cause serious problems for the baby. Caused by direct contact with the organism Toxoplasma Gondi, it is found in cat faeces, raw meat, and unpasteurized goats’ milk. Soil on fruit and vegetables may be contaminated.

Salmonella – Contamination with Salmonella bacterium can cause bacterial food poisoning. This doesn’t usually harm the baby directly, but any illness involving a high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration could cause a miscarriage or preterm labour.

HERBS TO AVOID DURING PREGNANCY.

Herbal remedies are for the most part quite safe to be taken during pregnancy; some are useful alternatives to drugs both in chronic illness and acute minor problems such as may arise during pregnancy. It is still preferable to take NO MEDICATION whatsoever in the first three months, unless there is a specific problem that needs treatment.

There are many Herbs which should never be taken in pregnancy – their emmonagogue or oxytocic properties may, in large amounts, cause uterine contractions and thereby risk miscarriage: I will only mention a few as there at least twenty on the list.

Nutmeg Myristica Fragrans

Thuja Thuja occidentalis

Calendula Calendula officinalis

Sage Salvia officinalis

Thyme Thymus vulgaris

Marjoram Origanum vulgare

Lovage Levisticum officinale

Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rhubarb Rheum sp.

Herbs that are safe to eat to take in culinary doses but not as a medicine during pregnancy include:

celery seed, cinnamon, fennel, fenugreek, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage and saffron.

If you enjoyed reading this article and would like to read the full version of this e-book called ‘A Natural Approach To Pregnancy’, visit my website http://www.easyconsciousliving.com or e-mail me at: [email protected]

————————————————————————————————————

“The Doctor Of The Future Will Give No Medicines, But Will Interest His Patients In The Care Of The Human Frame, In Diet, And In The Causes Of Diseases.”

–Thomas Edison.

Organic Chicken – Benefits to Health and Environment

The beauty of living in the countryside offers the experience of eating organic chicken, but it is also available in the cities in small quantities. Organic chickens usually just roam around to find food. People raising these chickens use rice, corn or any food available to feed them. They simply call the chickens in some distinct way and the chickens come racing as if panicking for the food. They then throw the grains or any food and each chicken picks as many as it can. When the regular meal is over, the chickens roam around and search the ground for any available food which may be plants, insects, seeds, and if the area is coastal, small fish and live small shellfish.

Organic chickens have high beneficial fats that lower cholesterol, and higher amount of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin A. Their eggs taste much much better than those from commercially-raised chickens which receive regular dose of antibiotics, vaccines and other medications. Though it takes longer cooking time for the meat of most native chickens, its taste is incomparable with 28-day broiler confined in overcrowded poultry houses where they also release their wastes.

Native organic chickens are much smaller in size and grow much slower. While it only takes 28 days for a broiler to be harvested, native chicken usually needs at least six months. That is why, native chickens cannot be grown on commercial basis. Since the supply cannot meet the demand requirements of the chicken meat eating population, no big poultry raiser is interested in venturing into this kind of poultry raising. Organic chicken vendors usually rely on groups of small farmers for their supply and could not at this point meet the growing demand of organic chicken consumers.

For organic chicken consumers, eating organic chicken does not only provide health benefits but also better ecosystem. Chickens raised in the open catch insects that may be harmful to the plants, scavenge crop residue and help in fertilizing the soil through its organic manure. By the way, farms using chicken dung as fertilizer do not necessarily produce organic crops. Chicken dung are bought from commercial poultry farms that use chemicals and medications which are proven to be harmful to the human body.

Since most suppliers of organic chicken are small farmers, organic chicken consumers also help build the rural economy and the income potential of small farmers. Consumers also indirectly contribute to the protection and conservation of the environment because growing organic chicken does not produce air pollution that is common in poultry farms. There are also no flies to spread germs and organisms that cause diseases to the people.

Side Effects After Open Heart Surgery

Open heart surgery is required to repair a number of common heart ailments, including blocked arteries and related heart problems. The procedure is conducted with the aid of a heart-lung machine which carries out important bodily functions while the heart is being operated upon.

While open heart surgery is a very serious type of surgery, it is also one of the most commonly-performed operations in advanced countries and has a very high overall survival rate. Here are some considerations and side effects if you are to undergo surgery:

At The Hospital:

You should not eat or drink within eight hours of the scheduled surgery time. Patients are usually admitted on the morning of the surgery.

After surgery, you will be monitored in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) and later on the general floor of the hospital. Hospital stays after surgery are usually 3 to 4 days.

Recovery Times:

Recovery times for full open heart surgery may be 6 to 12 weeks or more. However, recovery for off-pump surgery and minimally-invasive heart surgery may take much less time.

Side Effects After Open Heart Surgery:

People who have undergone or are about to undergo heart surgery are often concerned about the side effects after open heart surgery. Here are some of the most common side-effects, all of which are normal and NOT a cause for alarm in most cases:

* muscle pain

* chest pain

* swelling (especially if you have an incision in your leg from coronary artery bypass grafting, or CABG

* loss of appetite: it can take several weeks for your appetite to return * diminished sense of taste: your sense of taste will return in time

* nausea upon smelling food: many patients get nauseous upon smelling food; this is common and will dissipate

* difficulty sleeping: you may have trouble falling asleep, or you may wake up regularly in the middle of the night; this will get better over time

* constipation: take a laxative and add fruits, fiber and juice to your diet

* mood swings: mild depression is normal during this period

* swelling, especially when there has been an incision in your leg

* lump at top of incision: again, this will go away with time

* clicking noise or feeling in your chest: this, too, will go away on its own; if it gets worse, contact your surgeon

While all of these side effects are normal and should go away with time, do not hesitate to contact your doctor if you are concerned or are facing an emergency.

Medicine Side Effects:

There are also a number of possible side effects after surgery related to the medicines you take for surgery. If you experience any of the following side-effects, you SHOULD contact your physician right away:

* excessive nausea, diarrhea, constipation, or stomach pain

* vomiting

* dizziness or light-headedness when standing up

* confusion

* very fast or very slow pulse

* skin rash

* unusual burning or bleeding

Self-Care, Including Diet:

It is important to strictly follow your doctor’s instructions after surgery concerning your self-care, especially during the first 6-12 weeks after surgery.

One of the most important elements to consider after open heart surgery – both during the recovery period and for the rest of your life – is how you eat. It is important to eat heart-healthy foods, such as those rich in fiber and low in fats.

Most side-effects after heart surgery are completely normal. If you experience any side effects of particular concern that are not outlined here it is essential that you contact your doctor right away.

Can I Grow Taller If I Skip Breakfast? – Nutrition You Should Have to Grow Taller 4 Smarts

Do you prefer a hearty breakfast or a light morning bite to grow taller in good health? A big meal at lunchtime or at dinner? Snacks or no snacks? Three meals a day or several mini-meals? No approach is healthier than having breakfast if you follow your personal guidelines to grow taller 4 smart eating to and healthful living overall. That said, one meal, one snack, or one day of less healthful food choices or high-calorie eating won’t make or break your health. Your food choices on most days, over the long term, count! Think about some changes you could make. You can start small, perhaps just add a bigger spoonful of vegetables to your plate, or order a carton of milk to go with a fast-food lunch. Like most of today’s consumers, you may spend 45 minutes or less preparing a family meal (compared with 2 hours, 45 years ago).

In fact, marketing research shows that 60 percent of American women want to spend less than 15 minutes preparing a meal! Like others, you may not decide on the menu until the end of the workday. Sound familiar? When time is short, don’t give up on healthful eating. Just take short cuts to save time and energy! “No time,” “nothing to eat,” “woke up too late,” and “on a diet”: people give many reasons for breakfast skipping or skimping. Despite its benefits, breakfast may the most neglected and skipped meal of the day. Some blame their body clock for not feeling hungry when they wake up. The excuse “not hungry” may instead be stress; stress hormones can affect hunger cues. With today’s hectic lifestyles, others come up short on time and energy first thing in the morning. Some falsely believe that skipping breakfast is effective for weight control.

What is on today’s menu for the whole family to grow taller? Yet breakfast is the healthful way to start the day. More than forty years of breakfast-related studies show that breakfast benefits children, teens, and adults. Breakfast is your body’s early morning refueling stop. After 8 to 12 hours without a meal or snack, your body needs to replenish its glucose (blood sugar) with a new supply of food.

The brain needs a fresh supply of glucose, its main energy source, because it has no stored reserves you cannot grow taller so easy. Sustained mental work-in school or at work-requires a large turnover of glucose in the brain. Your muscles also need a replenished blood glucose supply for physical activity-even walking from your desk to the printer-throughout the day. Breakfast for Better Health. Among breakfast benefits: a jump start on fitting enough fruits, vegetables, and whole grains into your day. Orange juice for breakfast offers more than vitamin C; it’s also a good source of potassium. Whole-grain and other fiber-rich cereals and breads can boost your fiber and folate intake to grow taller. Studies suggest two other reasons for eating breakfast: growing taller in a healthy way and reduced risk for heart disease.

Breakfast eaters are less likely to be overly hungry for mid-morning snacks or lunch; overall they tend to eat less fat during the day, too. Compared to breakfast eaters, studies show that those who skipped breakfast tend to have higher blood cholesterol levels, a risk factor for heart disease. Further research on growing taller is needed to explore this link. For those who choose ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in the morning, their eating pattern typically has more vitamins and minerals, and less total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, and fewer calories. Why protein foods seem ideal to grow taller and to make meals more satisfying? For you, satisfaction may come in part from what you define as a meal, perhaps a protein food-such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or a soy burger-served with other foods (vegetables, fruit, whole-grain foods, and/or dairy foods)

But the benefits of protein to grow taller in meals extend beyond meal preferences. With their high-energy needs and small stomachs, most children need snacks. And so do teens. Three daily meals often aren’t enough to provide all the nutrients and food energy they need. The advice for parents: help children learn good snacking habits. And keep nutrient-rich food-group snacks that kids enjoy on hand and encourage kids to snack to satisfy hunger, without overeating. Make snack calories count within your personal healthful eating plan to grow taller without overspending your day’s calorie budget. Think of snacks as mini-meals that can contribute nutrient-rich food-group foods. Refer to “A Food Group plan for you and “Two Food-Group Snacks”.

Go easy on energy-dense snacks (candy, juice drinks, soft drinks, others) with a lot of fat, especially saturated (solid) fat and/or added sugars; choose them appropriately so your day’s food choices fit within your calorie budget. A little lean-protein food may add satiety. Use food labels to make snack decisions. Remember: If a snack package has two servings and you eat the whole amount, you double the calories, the saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium listed in one label serving, too! Check the ingredient list for added sugars…. if canned liquid supplements or meal replacements are good snacks for you?

Despite advertising messages, you don’t need pricey liquid nutrition to supplement your meals if you’re healthy and growing taller. Your kids don’t, either. Food-fruit, smoothies, whole-grain crackers, yogurt-taste better, and they provide nutrients and other beneficial substances that canned liquid “meals” lack. If you think you need a supplement, stick with a multivitamin/mineral supplement tablet. For a fraction of the price, you get the same nutrient benefits to grow taller.

Diet & Nutrition – Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin synthesized from glucose. It is only a vitamin for animals that have lost the enzyme Gulonolactone Oxidase, which is the last step in ascorbate synthesis. These animals include primates, bats, guinea pigs and perching birds. The reaction is:

Functions Vitamin C functions mainly as an antioxidant by sacrificing itself in order to prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Vitamin C helps to form collagen, which strengthens blood vessel walls, forms scar tissue, and provides a matrix for bone growth. Vitamin C also aids in the metabolism of amino acids and thyroxin synthesis, along with aiding in the absorption of iron. Many believe that vitamin C also aids in the body’s ability to fight off a cold. Although this has not been completely proven, research has shown that vitamin C does increase the body’s immune defenses.

Ascorbate is involved in 2 general types of reactions, all of which involve hydroxylation using molecular oxygen:

1. Monooxygenase: are dependent upon Cu++, O2

ex: Norepinephrine synthesis, peptide hormone amidation

· Norepinephrine synthesis in the adrenal medulla: Dopamine + O2 + ascorbate, + Cu+ Norepinephrine + H2O + dehydroascrobate + Cu++

· Peptide hormone amidation: Peptide-(glycine) peptide-NH2 + glyoxylate (CHO-CHOOH)

Includes: CCK, vasopression, gastrin releasing factor, gastrin, melanotropin, growth hormone release factor, MSH, corticotropin and calcitonin.

2. Dioxygenases: are dependent upon Fe++, O2, and a-ketoglutarate ex: carnitine synthesis, tyrosine degradation, hydroxylation of collagen

· Hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen:

This is found on many proteins of the extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin), as well as on C1q component of the complement, and maybe on acetylcholinesterase. The function of the ascorbate here, like that of the monooxygenase reactions, is to serve as a reducing agent for the Fe++ used in the reaction. It is the failure of hydroxylate collagens that leads to survey.

· Tyrosine Degradation (4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase):

Decreased ascorbate levels results in decreased muscle carnitine levels, and thus decreased oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. Muscle synthesized on the protein and released as such upon protein degradation; it is found on proteins such as histones, calmodulin, myosin, cytochrome c. Overall, if you decrease vitamin C, you will have a decrease in carnitine and subsequently a decrease in beta-oxidation and thus the muscle must rely on other energy forms because it is not able to transfer fatty acids efficiently into the mitochondria.

Deficiency Scurvy is the name given to someone who severely lacks vitamin C. Acknowledgement of scurvy symptoms dates back to the Papryrus of Elber, Egypt, in approximately 1550 BC. Documentation of scurvy symptoms also exist during the explorations of Jacques Cartier in 1535. It was at this time that Native Americans taught Cartier to use white cedar extract in treat his sailors that were dying from scurvy. At the time, no one knew exactly what was causing this, until a British physician decided to conduct a study that provided a few sailors with lime juice. Those who consumed the lime juice did not develop scurvy, thus giving them the nickname “limeys.” Eventually the factor was isolated from the lime juice and found to be the 6-carbon glucose structure termed ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

Symptoms include microcytic anemia, hemorrhaging, bleeding gums, muscles begin to degenerate, joint pain, and failure of wounds to heal. Vitamin C, though, is readily reversible by taking moderate dosages of the vitamin.

Symptoms of scurvy: o Soft bones (loss of collagen matrix, maybe loss of sulfonation) o Gum bleeding, teeth loosening (loss of cell matrix) o Capillary bleeding (loss of extracellular matrix supporting capillaries) o Slowed wound healing (is dependent on collagen and the extracellular matrix) o Coiled hair (changes in collagen structure in the hair) o Psychosis, hysteria, depression (?? Loss of neurotransmitters??)

Individuals are at risk for developing a vitamin C deficiency with an increased intake of steroid or aromatic drugs. These increase the need for ascorbate to hydoxylate and remove the compounds from the body. Examples of these types of drugs include: oral contraceptives, toxins, barbituates and stress-related glucocorticoids.

Individuals who smoke cigarettes also have a high requirement for vitamin C. These individuals have a significantly lower serum concentration. This is believed to be due to the toxins in the smoke that promote dangerous oxidation and free radical reactions in the lungs and body; prevention and correction of these reactions depletes the body of ascorbate. Smokers are recommended to increase their ascorbate intake to 100 mg/day.

Toxicity Even though vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin, supplementing with excessive vitamin C can be dangerous. In certain individuals high doses can cause iron toxicity due to its mobilization effect.

Sources o citrus fruits (i.e. oranges, kiwi, and mangoes) o cabbage-type vegetables (i.e. spinach) o dark green vegetables (i.e. broccoli, snow peas, and brussels sprouts) o papayas o cantaloupe o strawberries o red bell peppers o lettuce o tomatoes o potatoes

Importance of Oxygen in Daily Life

It cannot be more over-emphasized that oxygen is vital for sustenance of life on earth. Through respiration oxygen is taken to the lungs from where, after dissolving in blood, it is carried to all the cells in the body. It is responsible for oxidation or burning of food, thus, generating energy required for our body to function. In our day to day life, we see many people who seem tired or look like they have no energy. It is so because many of us, now-a-days, suffer from deficiency of oxygen.

Such deficiency can result from host of factors such as poor diet, air pollution, and wrong method of breathing and lack of exercise. The lack of sufficient oxygen in our cells weakens our immune system. Needless to say, oxygen is one of the most important elements needed for sustaining life on the planet. In the absence of oxygen, either our bodies start to suffer or we die. In case of deficiency of oxygen, the metabolism does not happen in the correct way resulting in weak or unhealthy cells. As a result, we lose our natural immunity and become susceptible to viruses and all sorts of diseases. However, we can opt for oxygen supplements for treatment of lack of oxygen or else we must undergo oxygen therapy.

On the other hand, the non-metallic element is also instrumental in destroying the harmful bacteria while leaving the beneficial bacteria totally unharmed. No drug can accomplish such a feat. For leading a fuller life, we need to exercise and follow a diet that is rich in nutrients. However, it is not the case as far as our modern life is concerned. We a lead a sedentary life which is aggravated by depleted oxygen levels in the atmosphere. The situation demands we inhale more of the highly reactive element to deal with the stresses of modern life.

There are numerous stresses on bodies resulting from the nature of modern life. To begin with, we cannot avoid getting exposed to chemicals. To get rid of the toxic stress due to chemical exposure, our cells need to be detoxified from time to time. In a world where breakdown of families or personal relationships is all too common, there is no way to escape emotional stress, which requires the production of adrenaline and andrenal hormones. Moreover, a physical trauma also restricts circulation as well as supply of oxygen inside our bodies. And, oxygen is also exhausted by infections we suffer from as non-metallic gas is needed to fight off fungi, bacteria and viruses.

Are Guggul and Red Yeast Rice a Safe and Effective Natural Remedy For High Cholesterol?

The natural nutrients guggul and red yeast rice have been used for hundreds of years in the worlds oldest healing traditions, Ayurvedic medicine of India and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

Red yeast rice, used since the 7th century A.D. in China , is actually a cooked rice by-product which has been dried, and then used for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, it has been used as a digestive stimulant and to improve blood circulation.

The benefits of red yeast rice are attracting attention today largely because of its effectiveness in safely lowering cholesterol. It’s effectiveness for this purpose is backed by numerous reliable research studies as well as centuries of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Recent research has shown that people who had to discontinue use of prescription statin cholesterol drugs because of adverse side effects did well with red yeast rice and had impressive improvements in cholesterol levels.

The herb guggul has been used in Ayurvedic medicine traditionally for a wide range of conditions, including balancing cholesterol and triglyceride levels and it’s effectiveness for these conditions is now backed by solid clinical research.

In one particular research study, after three months of using guggul the result was lower levels of total cholesterol and serum triglycerides (ave. 23% reduction) in the majority of participants.

Two other research trials in India confirmed that guggul can lower total cholesterol and raise HDL (so-called “good cholesterol”). Some people in the clinical trials reported mild digestive upset. There are no other reports of adverse side effects.

The effects that it has on blood cholesterol levels is comparable to prescription cholesterol drugs, but it is without the side effects since it is a natural plant extract.

Are Guggul and Red Yeast Rice Safe?

The safety of red yeast rice is sometimes called into question by some researchers. Their argument is that since it contains compounds that seem to produce an effect similar to cholesterol lowering statin drugs, it may produce dangerous adverse side effects as do the drugs. So far, current research does not support this theory, although more research is needed, for now there is no solid evidence that red yeast rice is unsafe.

Guggul & red yeast rice are natural remedies that are mild and gentle to the body. They can be used safely for extended periods of time without risk of addiction. Centuries of use and modern research have shown these nutrients to be safe and without significant side effects.

Since everyone responds differently, you may want to consult your health care provider before starting any supplementation program or to have any questions or concerns addressed.

Mushroom Growing Business for Uganda: The Real Magic Uncovered

‘In just 90 days, I was able to get over Shs. 50 million from the 7,000 stems of oyster mushrooms I grew. Each stem produces an average of 1.5kg of mushrooms in that 90 day period, and a kilo of mushrooms ranges from between Shs. 5000 and Shs. 8000.’

Mr. Kiddu Abel of the African Grower’s association (U) Limited

Mr. Kiddu who is referred to above is right, mushrooms do grow quick. Their complete growth cycle is on average 15 weeks (about 4 months), even when using rudimentary methods. In Uganda it is common to grow them by having polythene bags suspended from the ceiling/roofs of dark grass thatched huts. The polythene bags being stuffed with damp cotton seedlings as well as maize brand, cotton or timber waste. With modern methods however, the mushrooms begin to sprout after 1-3 days.

So with the above in mind, how do you set about to make money to “feed the gods” of Kampala and it’s surrounding areas?

FIRST THE CONS

1. Small Market.

Whilst mushrooms are technically not vegetables, they are often classified as such and owing to a low-level of disposable income, they are often not considered a necessity by Ugandans and therefore market is often limited to supermarkets and a few markets. The East African and International markets as per a few other research reports I have viewed seem to show that exports from Uganda would not be competitive when compared to other countries. The market will not therefore be significant but I however believe that the demand still outstrips the supply and with an increasing middle class, it is expected that demand for mushrooms will continue to grow.

2. Perish ability

Mushrooms are highly perishable and need to be consumed fast or properly preserved immediately after harvest; either through drying them or freezing. For the more advanced farmer, I recommend that you preserve them by drying them using a tunnel dryer. A tunnel dryer is estimated per Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) to cost $250. At September 2012’s exchange rate this is about Shs 632,000. I however expect that to be the non commercial type as the commercial ones are in the range of $6,500 but I believe the non commercial is a good starting point. There is of course a possibility that the creative manufacturers of Katwe near Kampala can make you a local tunnel dryer.

An alternative to drying is to have refrigeration facilities to keep them fresh as some consumers including export markets prefer fresh to dried mushrooms.

3. Water.

Mushrooms need constant supply of water and a moist dimly lit environment to grow favorably. We therefore recommend having an underground water tank to ensure constant supply of water.

4. Edible types.

Identifying and consuming only the edible types is a challenge, poisonous types with harmful toxins can easily be mistaken for edible ones. I would recommend that you contact an experienced grower to help you find the commercial and edible type of mushrooms. The most common types in Uganda being the oyster and the button types.

AND NOW THE PROS

1. Little Space.

Growing mushrooms doesn’t need a lot of land or space. It is particularly suited for even a Kampala suburb dweller and mushrooms can be grown in your backyard or store.

2. Simple process.

Mushroom growing is simple and doesn’t require a lot of expertise and intensive care. The art of mushroom growing can be mastered quickly and easily as compared to other agricultural products or plants.

A word of caution, despite the ease of learning, it is worth visiting a farmer in Uganda to get first hand training. You can try Kabale district which owing to its cooler climate is renowned for mushroom growing and even has modern commercial facilities.

3. Profitability and return on investment.

I estimate the Return on Investment for this sector is as follows:

  • Start up capital (A): Shs.4,420,000
  • Profitability (B): 19,170,000
  • Return on Capital (A/B): 0.23 years

Final word

Mushroom growing is easy to learn and with low start-up costs and returns in about 3 months as shown above. This is therefore a cracking venture to start. It is also a sustainable venture as mushrooms are a very good alternative source of protein.

Mushroom growing therefore has the double benefit of being profitable and good for the community (as a healthy living option).

Otherwise best of luck!